I posted this about two years ago. Leroy ‘Sugarfoot’ Bonner died over the weekend. Let me just say that I loved the Ohio Players in the mid-1970s.
Artist: Ohio Players
Tune: Skin Tight
There were a couple of funk groups in the late ’70s that were infectious. Everyone was able to shake their booties to these groups. One of these groups was the Ohio Players. The Ohio Players had a bass groove that was almost unparalleled. They had a tight horn section that had a slight echo of the Memphis sound. Finally, they had Sugar on the voices. His voice was just unique. His ad libs couldn’t be found anywhere else. BTW, over the last two years, You Tube has really filled out its R&B from the late ’70s. This was a great time for music. Enjoy!!!
I have looked at climate change and the ice core data several times over the past years. I don’t think that enough people are talking about this data and climate change. Most Americans have this abstract idea of climate change, that it was dreamed up by some crazy scientist at Oxford or Harvard. (You know that everyone is picturing someone with that Einstein hairdo or like Doc Brown in Back to the Future.) Well, climate change is a complex science studied by scientists from hundreds of universities across the country and around the world. Some are even from Harvard and Oxford. Let’s look at the data again.
How can climatologists point to some of the events that are happening now as evidence of climate change secondary to man’s burning fossil fuels? Well, thankfully, I don’t have to come up with an experiment off the top of my head. Smart people, scientists, have done this for us. There are a few places in the world that don’t change all that much. As a matter fact, they haven’t changed for thousands of years. One place would be Antarctica; the other, Greenland. In these two places, it gets extremely cold. The ice in some areas is several miles thick. NASA explains it like this:
Throughout each year, layers of snow fall over the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. Each layer of snow is different in chemistry and texture, summer snow differing from winter snow. Summer brings 24 hours of sunlight to the polar regions, and the top layer of the snow changes in texture—not melting exactly, but changing enough to be different from the snow it covers. The season turns cold and dark again, and more snow falls, forming the next layers of snow. Each layer gives scientists a treasure trove of information about the climate each year. Like marine sediment cores, an ice core provides a vertical timeline of past climates stored in ice sheets and mountain glaciers.
So, by drilling into the ice, we can go back in time and see what the environment was like. What was the composition of the ice 100 years ago… or a thousand years ago? How much methane or carbon dioxide was in the atmosphere? Whatever was in the atmosphere should be trapped in the ice. Scientists have been able to look back over 420,000 years. (Please click on the picture for a larger version.)
Notice how at the end of the graph (the right side) CO2 levels are higher than at any time during the measuring period. This seems to correlate very nicely with the industrial age, which started approximately 150 years ago. Below is another graph looking at temperature variation and carbon dioxide concentration. This graph covers only 18,000 years. Again, towards the end of the graph, on the right, you can see the abrupt increase in carbon dioxide.
This data makes a compelling argument that the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere is a new phenomenon. CO2 has not accumulated at this high a level over the last 420,000 years. This is a compelling argument to support the fact that man is having a definite impact on the world around us and that climate change second to man’s burning fossils is really happening. Currently, the leading explanation for this accumulation is the beginning of the industrial age and the burning of carbon fuel at a much higher rate than ever before. The question is whether you are going to believe the scientists or the other guys who are making huge vats of money burning fossil fuels. Is oxygen real or not?
So, here’s my question – what’s the problem with this science? If there’s no problem with the science, then it is clear that CO2 levels seem to correlate with rising temperatures. It is also clear that CO2 levels have risen to levels we haven’t seen in over 500,000 years. Now, we can argue over why CO2 levels have risen. We can pretend that this is some natural phenomenon that started approximately 150 years ago, or we can look at this data and realize that man’s burning of fossil fuels is throwing hundreds of thousands of tons of CO2 into the atmosphere and it may, just may, have some effect on our climate.
CDC has antigenically characterized 1,281 influenza viruses [1,113 2009 H1N1 viruses, 118 influenza A (H3N2) viruses, and 50 influenza B viruses] collected by U.S. laboratories since October 1, 2013 by hemagglutination inhibition (HI).
2009 H1N1 [1,113]:
1,112 (99.9%) of 1,113 2009 H1N1 viruses tested were characterized as A/California/7/2009-like, the influenza A (H1N1) component of the 2013-2014 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccine. One (0.1%) virus showed reduced titers with antiserum produced against A/California/7/2009.
Influenza A (H3N2) :
All 118 influenza A (H3N2) viruses tested have been characterized as A/Texas/50/2012-like, the influenza A (H3N2) component of the 2013-2014 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccine.
Influenza B : 31 (62%) of the 50 influenza B viruses tested belong to B/Yamagata/16/88-lineage and the remaining 19 (38%) influenza B viruses tested belong to B/Victoria/02/87 lineage.
Yamagata Lineage : 31 influenza B/Yamagata-lineage viruses were characterized as B/ Massachusetts/2/2012-like, which is included as an influenza B component of the 2013-2014 Northern Hemisphere trivalent and quadrivalent influenza vaccines.
Victoria Lineage : 19 influenza B/Victoria-lineage viruses were characterized as B/Brisbane/60/2008-like, which is included as an influenza B component of the 2013-2014 Northern Hemisphere quadrivalent influenza vaccine.
Statewide Temporal Trend of Influenza-Like Illness by MMWR Week
(2010-11, 2011-12, 2012-13, 2013-14 Seasons)
The figure below displays the number of influenza-like illness (ILI) cases reported during the 2010-11, 2011-12, 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 influenza seasons. ILI is defined as fever > 100˚ F AND cough and/ or sore throat without another identified cause. ILI can be caused by a variety of respiratory viruses, so data should always be interpreted in the context of laboratory data. ILI cases are reported by physicians to local health departments. Local health departments report the data weekly to the state. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention compiles weekly data and reports the data by “MMWR week.” Usually, there are 52 MMWR weeks per year. Some years, there are 53 MMWR weeks.
This year is represented by green. We seem to have peaked and our now getting better.